2/10/2016

How to analyze UFO videos

This document can help you analyze videos of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) by extracting (cropping and enhancing) closeups from interesting video frames that you select. For example, if you find either a YouTube or Facebook UFO video that you think might be authentic, you can use open-source software to copy one or more video frames and then extract closeups from them.

Note: Various procedures in this document require:
  • RowVid or Anilyzer (utilities that let you view YouTube videos frame-by-frame)
  • VLC (a media player that lets you download Facebook videos and view them frame-by-frame)
  • GIMP (image editor)
However, you can use other software tools and alter your procedures accordingly.

Most UFO videos are either hoaxes or natural phenomena. However, a few seem authentic. For example, the article, UFO recorded during flight over Rio de Janeiro, contains an intriguing video. Figure 1 is a UFO closeup that I've extracted (cropped and enhanced) from a single frame in the Rio video.
Figure 1 - Is this an object of unknown origin or an elaborate hoax?
My first UFO-video analysis
As I watched the Rio video for the first time, its UFO seemed to be spinning, tumbling, or changing shape, but I couldn't see its actions precisely. After watching the video a few more times, I wanted to get a closer look so that I might better understand the UFO. I decided to extract UFO closeups from a few frames in the video. I've published many of these images in a slide show: Closeups of a UFO over Rio de Janeiro. The closeups are pixelated (grainy), but more detailed than the video. Compare Figures 2 and 3.
Figure 2 - This original video frame shows the UFO as a small object.
Figure 3 - This extracted closeup shows a UFO with multiple features.
Copying UFO video frames
You can copy video frames from either YouTube or Facebook.

Copying YouTube video frames - To copy YouTube video frames, you can make screenshots of one or more frames. To copy a specific frame, do the following:
  1. Start playing a YouTube UFO video, pause it, and then copy its URL. Note: Play the video directly from the YouTube website. If you have accessed the video through a third-party website, click on the YouTube icon (tooltip: Watch on www.youtube.com) to watch the video directly through YouTube.
  2. Open a new browser tab, and do either of the following:
    • Go to RowVid.com, paste the URL into the ENTER VIDEO URL OR ID field, and click WATCH VIDEO.
    • Go to Anilyzer.com, paste the URL in the ENTER VIDEO URL field, select YouTube, and then click WATCH VIDEO.
  3. Click Settings (the gear icon), click Quality, and then select the highest possible quality; preferably 1080p.
  4. During an interesting interval, click 0.25 for the slowest video speed.
  5. Click either the forward or back arrow button to stop the video at a specific frame, and then continue clicking these buttons until you find a frame you wish to copy.
  6. Click the icon at the lower right corner of YouTube, select Full screen, press Print Screen to display a Save Screenshot dialog, and then click Save to copy the screenshot of the frame (as shown in Figure 4) to your desktop or working folder.
    Figure 4 - Screenshot of an interesting frame in a YouTube video.
  7. Click the icon at the lower right corner of YouTube, and then click Exit full screen.
  8. Repeat steps 5 through 7 for each frame you wish to copy.
Copying Facebook video frames - To copy Facebook video frames, you can download the Facebook video as an MP4 file, and then copy one or more of its frames.

Downloading a video from Facebook - To download a video from Facebook, do the following:
  1. Go to the web page that contains an embedded Facebook video, such as UFO recorded during flight over Rio de Janeiro, select the video, and then start playing it. Note: I recommend practicing with this Rio video; it contains many frames worth analyzing.
  2. Pause the video, right-click on it to display a menu, and then click Show Video URL to display it.
  3. Click on the URL to highlight it, and then press Ctrl + C to copy it.
  4. Open a new browser tab, select the address field, paste the URL, such as https://www.facebook.com/RodrigoAndradeOficial/videos/999375636766239/, into the address field.
  5. Replace the 'www' with an 'm' to change the URL, such as to https://m.facebook.com/RodrigoAndradeOficial/videos/999375636766239/, and then go to that URL to display the video launch window.
  6. Start the video, right-click on it, and then click Save Video As to display its dialog.
  7. Rename the video, such as ufo_rio.mp4, and then save it to your desktop or a working folder.
Copying frames from a Facebook video - To copy one or more frames from a Facebook video, do the following:
  1. Download a Facebook UFO video as an MP4 file according to the section above.
  2. Open the MP4 video with a VLC media player, start the video, and then pause it at any frame that shows a good view of the UFO.
  3. Click Tools, and then click Effects and Filters to display a dialog.
  4. Click Video Effects, select Sharpen, and then adjust the Sigma level until you see a clear image. IMPORTANT: This step is vital for the best possible image resolution.
  5. Toggle the play-and-pause button to find an interesting video segment, and then, as shown in Figure 5, click the Frame by frame icon repeatedly until you find the exact frame you want to copy.
    Figure 5 - An interesting frame in a Facebook video.
    1. Click Take a snapshot (camera icon) to save your copied frame image (vlcsnap screenshot) in your Pictures folder.
    2. Move your copied frame image, to your desktop or a working folder.
    3. Repeat steps 5 through 7 for each frame you wish to copy. 
    Extracting UFO closeups
    After copying frames from either a YouTube or Facebook video, you can extract UFO closeups. To extract a UFO closeup, do the following:
    1. Use GIMP to open any UFO video frame that you have copied, use the drop-down menu (at the bottom of the window) to set the zoom to 800%, and then use the scroll bars to center the image.
    2. Click Tools, click Transform Tools, and then click Crop to enable the Crop tool (a cross-hair pointer that you move with your mouse), and then use that Crop tool to draw a box around the UFO image.
    3. Press Enter to crop the new image.
    4. Click Image, click Scale Image to display its dialog, and then set Image Size-Width to approximately 400 px (the Height should automatically be proportional, such as 392 px), 
    5. Set the Interpolation field to either Sinc (Lanczos3) or Cubic, and then click Scale to resize the image. Note: Sinc (Lanczos3) interpolation generally works slightly better than Cubic.
    6. Click Colors, click Brightness-Contrast to display its dialog, adjust Brightness and Contrast as necessary, and then click OK.
    7. Click File, click Export As to display its dialog, rename the image, and then click Export to save the UFO closeup, such as shown in either Figure 6 or 7.
    Figure 6 - UFO closeup from a YouTube video.

    Figure 7 - UFO closeup from a Facebook video.
    (Along with Figures 1 and 3, this is another 

    closeup of the UFO in the Rio video.)

    4/14/2015

    How to print from your Chromebook

    You cannot directly print from your Chromebook because you cannot directly connect it to any printer. However, you can print indirectly through Google Cloud Print, which is an online service that lets you print through the internet. This document can help you set up your printer so that you can print through Google Cloud Print. For more information, please see Connect your printer to Google Cloud Print.

    Google Cloud Print lets you print from your Chromebook (or any computer and your Google account) to two printer types:
    • A classic printer connects to a Linux, Mac, or Windows computer through either USB or WiFi.
    • Google Cloud Ready printer needs no connection to any computer.
    This document:
    • Explains how to set up a classic printer.
    • Outlines how to set up a Google Cloud Ready printer.
    • Explains how to test Chromebook printing.

    Setting up a classic printer

    You can print from your Chromebook to a classic printer only after you set it up through a Linux, Mac, or Windows PC. This section explains how to set up your classic printer by connecting it to a PC, and then registering it to Google Cloud Print, which makes your printer available to your Chromebook (and your other computers) through the internet. For more information, see Connect your classic printers with Google Cloud Print.

    Note: I developed and tested this classic-printer setup procedure by using:
    • A Samsung model ML-2525 printer, which is a classic printer
    • A USB cable
    • A Linux Mint PC
    To set up your classic printer, do the following:
    1. Turn on your classic printer, and make sure it's connected to its Linux, Mac, or Windows computer through either a USB cable or a home WiFi network.
    2. Open a Chrome (or Chromium) browser on the connected computer.
    3. As shown in Figure 1, click the Customize button (three horizontal bars) to display its menu.
      Figure 1 - Clicking the Customize button.
    4. Click Settings to open its page in a new tab, scroll to and click Show advanced settings, scroll to the Google Cloud Print section, and then click Manage to display a Devices page.
    5. Click Add printers to display a Google Cloud Print - Printers to register page similar to Figure 2.
      Figure 2 - Adding your classic printer to register it.
    6. Select your classic printer, such as Samsung-ML-191x-252x, and then click Add printer(s) to register it with Google Cloud Print.
    7. Close the Google Cloud Print tab, and then test your classic printer according to the TESTING CHROMEBOOK PRINTING section below.

    Setting up a Cloud Ready printer

    You can print from your Chromebook to a Google Cloud Ready printer only after you set it up through either a Mac or Windows PC. Currently (April, 2015), you cannot yet set up a Cloud Ready printer through a Linux PC.
    Note: This section provides general Cloud Ready Printer information and example procedures because detailed information and specific procedures vary according to printer manufacturers and models. For details, please see Cloud Ready Printers.

    This section outlines setting up your Cloud Ready printer by performing setup tasks in the following sequence:
    1. Configuring your WiFi network correctly for your Cloud Ready printer.
    2. Updating your printer's firmware.
    3. Registering your printer.
    Note: I developed and tested the example procedures in this section by using:
    • An Epson model WP-4020 Series printer, which is a Google Cloud Ready printer
    • A TP-Link WiFi router, model TL-WA901ND
    • A Windows 7 PC

    Configuring your WiFi network

    Before you can use a Google Cloud Ready printer, you might need to configure your WiFi network for that printer. Here's an example procedure:
    1. Turn on your printer and your Windows PC.
    2. Press the QSS button on your router, and then within two minutes, press and hold the WiFi button on your printer for three seconds.
    3. On your Windows 7 PC, click Start to display its menu, click Control Panel (all items).
    4. In the Control Panel, Click Network and Sharing, and then click Network Map to display a window similar to Figure 4.
    5. Click See full map to display a window similar to Figure 5. Note: if you have configured your WiFi network correctly for your Cloud Ready printer, it appears in the full map; in this example, its printer name is EPSONFCF17.
    6. According to the procedure below, update the firmware in your Cloud Ready printer.

    Updating your printer firmware

    Before you can use a Google Cloud Ready printer, you might need to update its firmware. Here's an example procedure:
    1. According to the procedure above, configure you WiFi network for your Cloud Ready printer.
    2. On your Windows 7 PC, click Start, click Control Panel (all items), Click Network and Sharing, and then click Network Map to display a window similar to Figure 3.
      Figure 3 - Displaying the basic network map.
    3. Click See full map to display a window similar to Figure 4.
      Figure 4 - Displaying the full map.
    4. Right-click EPSONF7CF17 to display Management URL, and then click Management URL to display an EPSON WP-4020 Series setup web page similar to Figure 5.
      Figure 5 - Display the Epson WP-4020 Series setup web page.
    5. Click Firmware Update to start the update (if necessary). Note: Be patient; the update takes considerable time. When the update completes, it turns the printer off and then on.
    6. According to the procedure below, register your Cloud Ready printer to Google Cloud Print.

    Registering your Cloud Ready printer

    Before you can use a Google Cloud Ready printer, you need to register it to Google Cloud Print. Here's an example procedure:
    1. According to the procedure above, update the firmware for your Cloud Ready printer.
    2. On your Windows 7 PC, click Start, click Control Panel (all items), Click Network and Sharing, and then click Network Map to display a window similar to Figure 3.
    3. Click See full map to display a window similar to Figure 4.
    4. Right-click EPSONF7CF17 to display Management URL, and then click Management URL to display an EPSON WP-4020 Series setup web page similar to Figure 5.
    5. Click Google Cloud Print Setup to display its page as shown in Figure 6.
      Figure 6 - Starting the registration process for a Cloud Ready printer.
    6. Click Register, and then follow the prompts to register your Cloud Ready printer with Google Cloud Print.
    7. Test your Cloud Ready printer according to the TESTING CHROMEBOOK PRINTING section below.

    Testing Chromebook printing

    To test whether your classic or Cloud Ready printer lets you print from your Chromebook, or any other computer, do the following:
    1. According to the sections above, set up either a classic or Cloud Ready printer.
    2. Turn on your printer. Note: For a classic printer, also turn on the computer to which you have connected it.
    3. Turn on your Chromebook and log in to your Google account.
    4. According to the procedures below, print either a file or a web page.

    Printing a file

    To test whether you can print a file, such as a document or a photo, from your Chromebook, do the following:
    1. In the 'shelf' toolbar, at the bottom of the screen, click the Apps icon to display your Chromebook apps.
    2. Click the Files app icon to display your Google Drive and Download folders.
    3. Double click a file to open it, and then find and click the Print icon to display a Google Cloud Print window.
    4. If the Destination field displays the printer through which you wish to print a test page, set the Pages field to one page to print, such as 1-1, and then click Print to print a test page. Note: If the Destination field does not display the correct printer, click Change and then select the printer you wish to test.

    Printing a web page

    To test whether you can print a web page from your Chromebook, do the following:
    1. In the 'shelf' toolbar, at the bottom of the screen, click the Google Chrome icon to open its browser.
    2. Open any website, and then right-click (two-finger click) to display a menu.
    3. Click Print to display a Google Cloud Print window.
    4. If the Destination field displays the printer through which you wish to print a test page, set the Pages field to one page to print, such as 1-1, and then click Print to print a test page. Note: If the Destination field does not display the correct printer, click Change and then select the printer you wish to test.

    3/29/2015

    Getting started with Google Drive

    Google Drive is a free, online productivity suite that includes 15 GB of cloud storage. The apps in Google Drive let you create text documents, spreadsheets, presentations, forms and drawings. You need not purchase expensive productivity software; for most people, Google apps are powerful enough for almost all personal and business computing tasks. For more information, please see The new Google Drive.

    To help you get started with Google Drive, this document explains how to:
    • Access Google Drive so that you can use its online apps and storage.
    • Create folders in which you can store files and other folders.
    • Create files through Google apps. Note: If you use the Google Chrome browser, you can view and edit Google-apps files offline. For details, see Access your files offline.
    • Upload files and folders from your computer.
    • Download files and folders to your computer.
    • Move (relocate) files and folders.
    • Name files and folders so that you can easily find them.

    Accessing Google Drive

    Before you can access (open) Google Drive online, you need a Google account. If you don't already have one, go to Create your Google account. You can access Google Drive by doing either of the following:
    • Clicking the Google Drive icon in the Chrome App Launcher if you use Google Chrome as your web browser on a PC, Mac, or Chromebook.
    • Going to drive.google.com through Chrome or any other browser.

    Creating Google Drive folders

    Google Drive lets you store files within online folders that are similar to the offline folders on your computer.

    Creating folders

    A folder can contain files and/or other folders (subfolders). To create a new folder in Google Drive, do the following:
    1. Open Google Drive through to display its existing folders (if any) in the My Drive column (the second column in the Google Drive window) as shown in Figure 1. Note: the My Drive column always displays its folders above (ahead of) its files. Also, within any folder, it displays its subfolders above its files.
      Figure 1 - Typical Google Drive folders.
      1. Click New, click Folder, and then type the name of your new folder, such as "001Examples."
      2. Click Create to add your new folder, 001Examples, to the My Drive column as shown Figure 2.
      3. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each new folder you wish to add to My Drive.
        Figure 2 - Adding a new folder, 001Examples.

      Creating subfolders

      A subfolder is a folder within any other folder; any folder or subfolder can contain multiple subfolders. To create a new subfolder in Google Drive, do the following:
      1. Double-click the target folder within which you wish to create a subfolder. For example, you might double-click the 001Examples folder to select it as shown in Figure 3.
        Figure 3 - Selecting your 001Examples folder, which is initially empty.
      2. Click New, click Folder, and then type the name of your new subfolder, such as a school subject, "Biology."
      3. Click Create to add your new subfolder, Biology, within your 001Examples folder as shown Figure 4. Note: Immediately above its listing, the My Drive column displays the path to your currently-selected subfolder and its contents.
        Figure 4 - Adding a Biology subfolder within your 001Examples folder.
      4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each subfolder you wish to add within your 001Examples folder. For example, as shown in Figure 5, you might add new subfolders for other school subjects, such as Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy.
        Figure 5 - Adding Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy
        subfolders within your 001Examples folder.

      Creating files through Google apps

      Google Drive lets you create files directly through the following Google apps:
      • Docs (text documents)
      • Sheets (spreadsheets)
      • Slides (presentations)
      • Forms
      • Drawings
      To create files in Google Drive, do the following:
      1. Double-click the folder, or subfolder, in which you wish to create one or more files. For example, you can double-click the 001Examples folder to select it and display its subfolders, and then double-click the Biology subfolder to select it for new files.
      2. As shown in Figure 6, click New, and then click the Docs, Sheets, or Slides app icon to open that app. Note: Clicking New, and then More, displays additional apps: FormsDrawings, and My Maps.
        Figure 6 - Creating files through Google apps.
      3. Use the app to create a new file (document, spreadsheet, presentation, form, drawing, or map). For example, you might use the Google Docs app to create a new document file, such as Frogs.
      4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each new file you wish to create within your Biology subfolder. For example, as shown in Figure 7, you might: 
        • Use the Google Sheets app to create a new spreadsheet file, such as Frog expense calculations.
        • Use the Google Docs app to create a new document file, such as Trees.
      Figure 7 - Creating new Google app files in the Biology folder.

      Uploading files and folders

      You can upload files and folders from your computer into Google Drive.

      Uploading files

      To upload one or more files, do the following:
      1. Open Google Drive to display its folders as shown above in Figure 1.
      2. Select the folder or subfolder into which you wish to upload a file.
      3. As shown above in Figure 6, click New and then click File upload to display an Open files window. the folders and files stored on your computer hard drive.
      4. Select the file you wish to upload. Note: You can select more than one file for upload.
      5. Click Open to upload your selected file(s). 

      Uploading folders

      The procedure for uploading files is similar to that for uploading files. To upload a folder, do the following:
      1. Open Google Drive.
      2. Select the folder or subfolder into which you wish to upload a file.
      3. Click New and then click Folder upload to display a Select Folder to Upload window.
      4. Select the folder you wish to upload. Note: You can select only one folder for upload.
      5. Click Upload to upload your selected folder.

      Downloading files and folders

      You can download files and folders from Google Drive to your computer. To download a file, folder, or subfolder, right-click it to display its menu, and then click Download.

      Google app files download as MS Office files. For example, the Docs file named Frogs downloads as an MS word file named Frogs.docx. Note: If you prefer, you can use LibreOffice Writer to open a docx file and then save it as an odt file.

      Folders and subfolders download as compressed folders. For example, the folder named 001Examples downloads as a compressed folder, 001Examples-2015-03-28.zip.

      Moving files and folders

      If you accidentally place a file or folder in the wrong folder or subfolder, you can easily relocate it. For example, assume that you've uploaded a Snakes.docx MS-word file into your Chemistry subfolder. You would need to move Snakes.docx from your Chemistry subfolder into your Biology subfolder as follows:
      1. Open Google Drive to display its folders as shown above in Figure 1.
      2. Double-click your 001Examples folder to display its contents in the My Drive column, and then double-click your Chemistry subfolder to display its contents.
      3. Right click Snakes.docx to display its menu, and then click the Move to icon to display its menu.
      4. Within the Move to menu, double-click your 001Examples folder to display its contents.
      5. As shown in Figure 8, select your Biology subfolder, and then click Move.
        Figure 8 - Moving a file into the Biology subfolder.

      Naming files and folders

      The names you give your files and folders can make them easier to organize and find within Google Drive. To sort files and folders by Name in the My Drive column, you can click the Sort-options icon (AZ), and then click Name. In an alphanumeric listing, item names prefaced with numerals appear ahead of names with only letters (alpha characters).

      If you create many files for multiple projects, consider using numbers to preface the names of your most important files and folders. Two examples:
      • Use a simple number, such as 001, to place items ahead of others. For example, see the listing in Figure 2, which includes several folders prefaced with 001.
      • Use numeric dates. For example, if you write a document about tigers on September 8, 2017, you might name its file 2017-09-08_Tigers. Note: Sorting files by date facilitates creating archive folders. You could quickly find any "Tiger" file in an archive folder named 2017Tigers.

      2/09/2015

      Using Python to help write villanelle poems

      Python can help you write a villanelle, which is a 19-line poem that contains five tercets (three-line stanzas) and one quatrain (four-line stanza). After you start your villanelle by writing two rhyming refrains, Python generates the correct pattern for writing the remainder of your villanelle, its other rhyming lines.

      Starting your villanelle

      Start your villanelle by typing two rhyming refrains (repeating lines) into your Villanelle Helper Python program, which generates the correct pattern for your entire villanelle. As shown in Figure 1, it places all refrains correctly and indicates how the other lines should rhyme.
      Figure 1 - After you type two rhyming refrains into the Villanelle Helper window,
      Python generates the pattern for your villanelle poem, automatically populating
      all refrains, and indicating where it will place other rhyming lines.
      Note: Figure 1 is part of my villanelle:Fix the seasons.
      I took this screenshot while still writing the villanelle.

      To start writing your villanelle, do the following:
      1. Install Python 3 and IDLE for Python 3. For details, see Getting Started with Python Programming. You also need the Tkinter (ttk) graphical user interface. Note: IDLE is the Python integrated development environment (IDE).  
      2. Start Python 3 to display it Shell window, click File, and then click New Window.
      3. Click File, click Save As, type VillanelleHelper into the File-name field, select a convenient location, such as Desktop, and then click Save.
      4. Copy VillanelleHelper, paste it into your VillanelleHelper.py window, and then click Save. For more information, see RunningPython Examples.
      5. Click Run, and then click Run Module to display a Villanelle Helper window similar to that at the top of Figure 1.
      6. Type your first refrain (refrain01), press Tab, type your second refrain (refrain02), and then click Display Refrains to generate Python Shell text similar to that in Figure 2. Note: This generated text is the pattern for your villanelle, which has two portions. The top portion is the reference area; the bottom portion is the working area, which contains upper-case lines that you replace by typing over them. Do not type over the top portion; use it as a reference. Type only in the working area.
      7. Finish writing your villanelle according to the procedure below.
        Figure 2 - After you copy the pattern of your villanelle poem to
        your word processor, you can type in the other rhyming lines.

      Finishing your villanelle

      To finish your villanelle, do the following:
      1. Copy all text, the pattern of your villanelle, from the Python Shell into your word processor.
      2. Scroll to the working area that begins with COMPLETE YOUR VILLANELLE BY TYPING OVER THE INDICATED LINES.
      3. As shown in Figure 2, type a line into stanza 1, line 2, and type a line into stanza 2, line 1.
      4. Type a line into stanza 2, line 1, and type a line into stanza 2, line 2 that rhymes with stanza 1, line 2.
      5. Type a line into stanza 3, line 1 that rhymes with stanza 2, line 1, and type a line into stanza 3, line 2 that rhymes with stanza 1, line 2.
      6. Similarly type over the indicated lines for stanzas 4, 5 and 6.
      7. Add a title to your villanelle poem, and then publish it.

      1/31/2015

      Using LibreOffice Calc to create pivot tables

      A pivot table lets you provide various data viewpoints for analyses and reports. You can create pivot tables through a spreadsheet application, such as Calc in the LibreOffice productivity suite. This document can help you use Calc to:
      1. Create a practice spreadsheet
      2. Create practice pivot tables
      3. Refresh pivot tables
      For more information, please see Pivot Table in LibreOffice help.

      Creating a practice spreadsheet

      A practice spreadsheet can help you learn to create pivot tables. To create your practice spreadsheet, do either of the following:
      • Click Stooge Computers potential profit, click File, click Download as, and then click OpenDocument format (.ods).
      • Open a LibreOffice Calc spreadsheet, and then type a source-data worksheet similar to Figure 1.
        Figure 1 - The main (SourceData) worksheet in your practice spreadsheet.
        You can analyze this information through pivot tables.

      Creating practice pivot tables

      After you create your practice spreadsheet according to the section above, you can create one or more practice pivot tables as worksheets within your spreadsheet. For example, to view potential profits, you might create two pivot tables:
      • Potential-profit data in Warehouse rows and Product columns
      • Potential-profit data in Product rows and Warehouse columns

      Example Warehouse rows and Product columns

      To create a practice pivot table that displays potential-profit data in Warehouse rows and Product columns, do the following:
      1. As shown in Figure 2, your SourceData worksheet, select the rows and columns that you wish to make available to your pivot table. In this example, I selected rows 2 through 14 and columns A through H.
        Figure 2 - Starting a pivot table.
      2. Click Data, click Pivot Table, click Start, select Current selection, and then click OK to display a Pivot Table window.
      3. As shown in Figure 3, drag Warehouse into the Row Fields frame, drag Product into the Column Fields frame, and then drag Potential Profit into the Data Fields frame.
        Figure 3 - Defining a pivot table through a Warehouse row field,
        a Product column field, and a Potential Profit data field.
      4. Click OK to display a pivot table similar to Figure 4. This pivot table contains Warehouse rows, Product columns, and Total Results for both.
        Figure 4 - A pivot table that displays potential profits
        through Warehouse rows and Product columns.
      5. As necessary, adjust column widths so you can see all data correctly.
      6. Rename the pivot-table worksheet according to its content, such as PotentialByWarehouse.
      7. Create a second example pivot table according to the procedure below.

      Example Product rows and Warehouse columns

      To create a practice pivot table that displays potential-profit data in Warehouse rows and Product columns, do the following:
      1. As shown in Figure 2,  your SourceData worksheet, select the rows and columns that you wish to make available to your pivot table. In this example, I selected rows 2 through 14 and columns A through H.
      2. Click Data, click DataPilot, click Start, select Current selection, and then click OK to display a DataPilot window.
      3. As shown in Figure 5, drag Product into the Row Fields frame, drag Warehouse into the Column Fields frame, and then drag Potential Profit into the Data Fields frame.
        Figure 5 - Defining a pivot table through a Product row field,
        a Warehouse column field and a Potential Profit data field.
      4. Click OK to display a pivot table similar to Figure 6. This pivot table contains Product rows, Warehouse columns, and Total Results for both. Note: Figure 6 shows information that is 'pivoted' from that in Figure 4.
        Figure 6 - A pivot table that displays potential profits
        through Product rows and Warehouse columns.
      5. As necessary, adjust column widths so you can see all data correctly.
      6. Rename the pivot-table worksheet according to its content, such as PotentialByProduct.

      Refreshing pivot tables

      When you create a pivot table, it contains only information that is current at that moment. Therefore, you need to refresh a pivot table after you update its source data. To refresh a pivot table, do the following:
      1. Select the worksheet of the pivot table you wish to refresh. For example, you might select your PotentialByProduct worksheet as shown in Figure 6.
      2. Right-click Filter to display its menu.
      3. Click Refresh to update pivot-table information.

      1/27/2015

      Promoting Blogger posts through LinkedIn

      If you use Google Blogger, you might wish to promote your work through LinkedIn. This document explains how to:
      1. Promote a Blogger post through a LinkedIn post.
      2. Copy a Blogger-post image to a LinkedIn post.

      Promoting a Blogger post through LinkedIn

      To promote a Google Blogger post through your LinkedIn account, do the following:
      1. In your Chrome web browser, open the Blogger post you wish to promote. Note: Open only a single post. For example, if you are promoting your newest post, open your blog and then click on the most recent post title.
      2. In a new, separate tab, open your LinkedIn Home page.
      3. In the Share an update field, click Create a Post (the pencil icon) to display a Your Posts page similar to Figure 1.
        Figure 1 - Creating a new LinkedIn post.
      4. Type over the Write Your Headline text to create a headline that differs from your Blogger post title. These should only be similar because your LinkedIn post will contain a link to your Blogger post. For example, my LinkedIn post, Chromebook's photo editor applies to my LinkedIn post that includes a link to my Blogger post, Using the Chromebook built-in photo editor.
      5. As shown in Figure 2, type some text that briefly describes your Blogger post.
        Figure 2 - Describing and linking to your Blogger post.
      6. Click your Blogger-post tab, copy its URL (web link). 
      7. Click your LinkedIn-post tab, and then create a link as follows:
        1. Type some link text, such as Please see my recent document, Using the Chromebook built-in photo editor.
        2. Select that link text.
        3. Click Add link (chain icon) to display its dialog.
        4. Paste Your Blogger-post URL into the dialog, and then click Add.
      8. If you wish to add an image from your Blogger post, copy that image according to the section below, click Add image (camera icon), click Upload Image, and then click Open.

      Copying a Blogger-post image

      If you wish to copy a Blogger-post image to a LinkedIn post, you should first copy that image to your desktop, as follows:
      1. In your Chrome web browser, open the Blogger post from which you wish to copy an image.
      2. Right-click the image you wish to copy.
      3. Click Save image as to display a Save File window.
      4. Select your desktop folder, and then click Save to download the image to your desktop.

      1/25/2015

      Using LibreOffice Calc to create an idea matrix

      An idea matrix, also called a verb-noun matrix, can help you organize your initial thoughts about almost any unfamiliar subject. This document explains how to:
      1. Create an idea matrix through Calc, the spreadsheet application within the LibreOffice productivity suite. 
      2. Generate new and unexpected ideas through your idea matrix.
      Although you can use pencil and paper to create an idea matrix, using a spreadsheet application is easier and faster.

      Note: Procedures in this document specifically apply to LibreOffice Calc, and generally apply to other spreadsheet applications, including Google Drive Sheets and MS Office Excel.

      Creating an idea matrix

      To create an idea matrix through LibreOffice Calc, you need to format matrix cells and then set up matrix concatenation.

      Formatting matrix cells

      Formatting matrix cells make them easier to use. To format your matrix cells, do the following:
      1. Open a new Calc spreadsheet. 
      2. As shown in Figure 1, select cells A1 through F6, and then:
        1. Click Format, click Cells, and then click the Alignment tab.
        2. Under Properties, select Wrap text automatically.
        3. In the Horizontal dropdown menu, select Left, in the Vertical dropdown menu, select Middle, and then click OK.
        4. Click Format, click Cells, and then click the Borders tab.
        5. Under Spacing to contents, set all four sides to 4.0pt, which makes the cells easier to read.
          Figure 1 - Selecting cells A1 through F6.
      3. Select cells A2 through A6, click Format, click Cells, click the Alignment tab, and then, in the Horizontal dropdown menu, select Center, and then click OK
      4. Select cells B1 through F1, click Format, click Cells, click the Alignment tab, and then, in the Horizontal dropdown menu, select Center, and then click OK

      Setting up matrix concatenation

      An idea matrix generates each possible idea by using the CONCATENATE() function to combine a verb, a blank space, and a noun into a phrase. To set up matrix concatenation, do the following:
      1. Format matrix cells according to the section above. 
      2. As shown in Figure 2, select cell A1, type Nouns at right and Verbs below, and then adjust the width of column A.
        Figure 2 - Typing the CONCATENATE() function into cell B2.
      3. In cells A2 through A6, type five placeholders for verbs, v1 through v5; and in cells B1 through F1, type five placeholders for nouns, n1 through n5.
      4. Select cell B2, and then type =CONCATENATE($A2," ",B$1) to display "v1 n1" in cell B2. Note: This cell is displaying the placeholder verb from A2, a blank space, and then the placeholder noun from B1.
      5. As shown in Figure 3, copy cell B2 and then paste it into cells B3 through B6.
        Figure 3 - Copying the CONCATENATE() function into cells B3 through B6.
      6. As shown in Figure 4, copy cells B2 through B6 and then paste them into cells C2 through F6.
        Figure 4 - Copying the CONCATENATE() function into cells C2 through F6.
      7. Rename the worksheet to Base 5 by 5 and then copy it one or more other sheets, such as Idea 1, Idea 2, and Idea 3. Note: You can make a larger idea matrix by simply copying and pasting new rows and/or columns.

      Generating ideas through your matrix

      Assume that a professor has asked you to write an essay about steam-locomotive maintenance. Unless you have recently worked on a steam locomotive, you can use your idea matrix to generate new or unexpected ideas that help you start your research. You might use a procedure similar to the following:
      1. Create an idea matrix according to the sections above.
      2. As shown in Figure 5, type as many as five verbs (or verb phrases) into cells A2 through A6, overtyping the placeholders for verbs.
        Figure 5 - An example idea matrix for 'steam-locomotive maintenance.'
      3. Type as many as many as five nouns (or noun phrases) into cells B1 through F1, overtyping the placeholders for nouns.
      4. Examine the idea matrix to see whether any of its generated ideas are worth keeping. If so, either write down those ideas or print the idea matrix and then circle its best ideas. If not, repeat steps 2 through 4 until you see one or more useful ideas.